Week 2

This week, we have been given detailed instructions on what to do for the video production project. This project is indeed the biggest part of this course. 


We need to produce a video to solve a problem in a duration 7-10 minutes.

We started to brainstorm the ideas within our group. As for me, I don’t really have clear picture at the first place. It is to broad to think of something ‘ to solve a problem’ . 

I was thinking about solving a problem on debt, because the students usually have financial problem. But then, after some discussion, we pick FASHION + ACADEMIC as the main themes. 

This is because Fashion is very close to us, the girls in 4 DIVAS. Yet, we have to be on the right track, so academical element is included too.


“Basically, we came up a rough ideas of a girl who failed to present a suitable attire in an interview & eventually gives a bad impression on the interviewers.

Then, we are going to show the example of a person wearing a suitable attire for interview & compare with a messy person who is not tidy enough to sit for the interview session.

In the end, the girl realizes her mistakes and make changes. Thanks to the tips, the girl manages to score her ideal job in the future.” – This is taken from our group blog, http://www.4divalegacy.wordpress.com

The title of this video will be ‘ONE STEP CLOSER’. It symbolizes the girl who has will finally achieve her dreams.






Reflection :

I think the main aim to produce a video to solve a problem is good. But, it would be great if we were given the same theme to work on. It’s not to limit our creativity, but we will have the basic foundation to start. Lecturers and tutors can see how are we going to produce videos based on the same themes but various ways. For example, if the theme is ‘Nature’, then all of us need compete with others to produce video on the same theme, but the best among all. But since we are given free theme now, we cannot compare our video in terms of its’ effectiveness in delivering the same message based on the same theme as all other videos are produced based on their own themes. 

However, this is only my humble opinion. I would love to proceed producing a video to educate people outside there. Maybe in the future, I can work on to produce my own video to convey any message to the people. Like what Matlutfi has been doing for years and how his videos has affected most people, including me. I like to watch his videos because there are important messages conveyed directly and indirectly. From what I can see, he has started to collaborate with some companies. I hope, by the end of this course, with the skills on ict that I’ll gain, I can make my own profit through the videos, like he did. 













Lecture 1

Types and Roles of Phrases

Above is the topic that I’ve learnt in the class today.

In previous semester, I had learnt on Noun, Verb and so on. But this time around, it goes deeper.

So before I start, let’s do some exercise to your brain 😀



Can you answer that? 

Well, two thumbs up for you if you could 🙂

First thing first, let’s define what is ‘phrase’. Phrase is basically a group of words and functions as a part of speech. Phrase does not carry a definite meaning all by itself. For example, ” the girl ” . This is consider as a phrase although it only has two simple words. 

So far, I have learnt on Noun Phrase and Verb Phrase.

Noun Phrase is a phrase that built by the combination of “NOUN” + “MODIFIERS” .

Usually in a complete sentence, there would be at least one noun phrase. 

For example : The teacher who is holding a stick seems very angry. 

The bold words is A NOUN PHRASE. “teacher” is the main noun, while “the” is the pre modification of it and “who is holding a stick” is the post modification.

Noun Phrase can contain pre and post modification.

Now, let’s take a break and practice. Look at the picture above (Taylor Swift) and create a sentence that contains a noun phrase. 


That girl with a pair of bright eyes is a good singer.

The bold words is the noun phrase.

Now let’s move on to Verb Phrase.

Verb phrase is built with the combination of verb and auxiliaries.

For instance : ” I will attend a meeting this evening.”

The bold words is the verb phrase. The word “attend” is the head, while the modal “will” acts as the auxiliary.

Contrast to Noun Phrase, Verb Phrase can have ONLY PRE-MODIFICATION.

Now, let’s look at this  :

The sentence : “The kids may have started the game” will have this structure tree as below :Image

It is a complete sentence with both Noun Phrase and Verb Phrase.


So I think that’s all that I can review, hope that you can benefit from this short review.

Thank you for your time ! 🙂

Second Semester- Structures In Context

Assalamualaikum and hye everyone! Long time no see, right?

Guess you guys had a blast break.

So hye everyone, before we start, let’s us welcome this 2013!


Keep calm, and Welcome 2013!!

Please be nice to me , 2013. I am now in the second semester of my four-year TESL program in UKM. I hope everything will go smoothly.

So basically, there’s no more Foundation English for this semester, but the continuation of the course is Structures In Context. Well, I am glad that I would still be learning on grammar.  in this second semester.

Previously, the Foundation Program had taught me a lot of new things.So I expect to grab as much as I could and benefit from this course ( Structures In Context) for my future. I also hope that I will ‘dig’ grammar deeply this time around.

I still have lots of things to be mastered, and any cooperation from the lecturer and my fellow course-mates is highly appreciated and needed.

For your information, I would still use this blog to share every week’s lesson here. Do visit my blog again! Thank you 🙂

That’s all for now. Have a nice day, bye!

Sentence Connectors

Hye fellow friends!  I am here to share with you on sentence connectors. They are very familiar in our daily conversation .

Look at the picture above. The chains are connected to one another. Well, the same goes to sentence connectors’ function!  They connect one sentence to another to show that they both are related. As simple as that !

Next, let’s look at some examples of sentence connectors and their usages :

Those sentence connectors seem so familiar in our daily conversation , aren’t they?

The thing is, we should really know the usages of each and every sentence connectors . Some of them can function the same, yet some are very opposite to one another.

Have a look at this table below:

You may also view the video that I picked up from Youtube for more comprehension . Enjoy!

Thak you for your time ! 🙂


Greetings everyone!


I am going to share more about grammar that I have learned in the previous lecture.

The topic is MODAL VERBS. This might seem as something really easy to some of us, but actually, there’s a part where this thing can get you into confusion.

First of all, let’s us recognize the common modal verbs.



Modal Example Uses
Can They can control their own budgets.We can’t fix it.

Can I smoke here?

Can you help me?

Ability / PossibilityInability / Impossibility

Asking for permission


Could Could I borrow your dictionary?Could you say it again more slowly?

We could try to fix it ourselves.

I think we could have another Gulf War.

He gave up his old job so he could work for us.

Asking for permission.Request


Future possibility

Ability in the past

May May I have another cup of coffee?China may become a major economic power. Asking for permissionFuture possibility
Might We’d better phone tomorrow, they might be eating their dinner now.

They might give us a 10% discount.

Present possibility

Future possibility

Must We must say good-bye now.They mustn’t disrupt the work more than necessary. Necessity / ObligationProhibition
Ought to We ought to employ a professional writer. Saying what’s right or correct
Shall(More common in the UK than the US) Shall I help you with your luggage?Shall we say 2.30 then?

Shall I do that or will you?


Asking what to do

Should We should sort out this problem at once.I think we should check everything again.

Profits should increase next year.

Saying what’s right or correctRecommending action

Uncertain prediction

Will I can’t see any taxis so I’ll walk.I’ll do that for you if you like.

I’ll get back to you first thing on Monday.

Profits will increase next year.

Instant decisionsOffer


Certain prediction

Would Would you mind if I brought a colleague with me?Would you pass the salt please?

Would you mind waiting a moment?

“Would three o`clock suit you?” – “That’d be fine.”

Would you like to play golf this Friday?

“Would you prefer tea or coffee?” – “I’d like tea please.”

Asking for permissionRequest


Making arrangements



Credit to : http://www.learnenglish.de/grammar/verbmodal.htm

Note that the usage of each modal verb may or may not be differ from others.

Do not stress out, now let’s have a look at this cartoon below.

You see the difference? Modal verbs are used to show some politeness too! Interesting, right? Even the boy is drowning, he still uses the correct modal verb. Hahaha.

Last but not least, enjoy this video . Thank you!


First of all , have a look at a picture below.


This misplacement of ADVERB caused people to misunderstood the sentence.

I will explain briefly about adverb.

An adverb can modify a verb, an adjective, another adverb, a phrase, or a clause. An adverb indicates manner, time, place, cause, or degree and answers questions such as “how,” “when,” “where,” “how much”.

While some adverbs can be identified by their characteristic “ly” suffix, most of them must be identified by untangling the grammatical relationships within the sentence or clause as a whole. Unlike an adjective, an adverb can be found in various places within the sentence.

In the following examples, each of the highlighted words is an adverb:

The seamstress quickly made the mourning clothes.

In this sentence, the adverb “quickly” modifies the verb “made” and indicates in what manner (or how fast) the clothing was constructed.

The midwives waited patiently through a long labour.

Similarly in this sentence, the adverb “patiently” modifies the verb “waited” and describes the manner in which the midwives waited.

The boldly spoken words would return to haunt the rebel.

In this sentence the adverb “boldly” modifies the adjective “spoken.”

We urged him to dial the number more expeditiously.

Here the adverb “more” modifies the adverb “expeditiously.”

Unfortunately, the bank closed at three today.

In this example, the adverb “unfortunately” modifies the entire sentence.

Conjunctive Adverbs

You can use a conjunctive adverb to join two clauses together. Some of the most common conjunctive adverbs are “also,” “consequently,” “finally,” “furthermore,” “hence,” “however,” “incidentally,” “indeed,” “instead,” “likewise,” “meanwhile,” “nevertheless,” “next,” “nonetheless,” “otherwise,” “still,” “then,” “therefore,” and “thus.” A conjunctive adverb is not strong enough to join two independent clauses without the aid of a semicolon.

The highlighted words in the following sentences are conjunctive adverbs:

The government has cut university budgets; consequently, class sizes have been increased.
He did not have all the ingredients the recipe called for;therefore, he decided to make something else.
The report recommended several changes to the ways the corporation accounted for donations; furthermore, it suggested that a new auditor be appointed immediately.
The crowd waited patiently for three hours; finally, the doors to the stadium were opened.
Batman and Robin fruitlessly searched the building; indeed, the Joker had escaped through a secret door in the basement.

Written by Heather MacFadyen

REFLECTION : In short, we can say that adverb functions to modify verbs, just like adjective that functions to modify nouns.

Simple right?

Here is my own example of adverb: Look at this picture.

The girl is thinking critically.

“Critically” describes how the girl is thinking.

Now, I extremely suggest you to view this site for more understanding on adverbs “so” and “too”

Click here.

Thank you! 🙂


Before I start explaining of this new topic, let’s have a look at a picture.

That are some examples of prepositions.

Do you realize that we use a lot of prepositions in our daily conversation?

What is preposition actually?

preposition links nounspronouns and phrases to other words in asentence. The word or phrase that the preposition introduces is called the object of the preposition.

A preposition usually indicates the temporal, spatial or logical relationship of its object to the rest of the sentence as in the following examples:

The book is on the table.
The book is beneath the table.
The book is leaning against the table.
The book is beside the table.
She held the book over the table.
She read the book during class.

In each of the preceding sentences, a preposition locates the noun “book” in space or in time.

prepositional phrase is made up of the preposition, its object and any associated adjectives or adverbs. A prepositional phrase can function as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb. The most common prepositions are “about,” “above,” “across,” “after,” “against,” “along,” “among,” “around,” “at,” “before,” “behind,” “below,” “beneath,” “beside,” “between,” “beyond,” “but,” “by,” “despite,” “down,” “during,” “except,” “for,” “from,” “in,” “inside,” “into,” “like,” “near,” “of,” “off,” “on,” “onto,” “out,” “outside,” “over,” “past,” “since,” “through,” “throughout,” “till,” “to,” “toward,” “under,” “underneath,” “until,” “up,” “upon,” “with,” “within,” and “without.”

Each of the highlighted words in the following sentences is a preposition:

The children climbed the mountain without fear.

In this sentence, the preposition “without” introduces the noun “fear.” The prepositional phrase “without fear” functions as an adverb describing how the children climbed.

There was rejoicing throughout the land when the government was defeated.

Here, the preposition “throughout” introduces the noun phrase “the land.” The prepositional phrase acts as an adverb describing the location of the rejoicing.

The spider crawled slowly along the banister.

The preposition “along” introduces the noun phrase “the banister” and the prepositional phrase “along the banister” acts as an adverb, describing where the spider crawled.

The dog is hiding under the porch because it knows it will be punished for chewing up a new pair of shoes.

Here the preposition “under” introduces the prepositional phrase “under the porch,” which acts as an adverb modifying the compound verb “is hiding.”

The screenwriter searched for the manuscript he was certain was somewhere in his office.

Similarly in this sentence, the preposition “in” introduces a prepositional phrase “in his office,” which acts as an adverb describing the location of the missing papers.



Written by Heather MacFadyen

REFLECTION : After the lecture on this topic, I realized that it is not that easy to use prepositions in our sentences. There are some rules we must adhere to.

Prepositions are as important as other grammar units.

Please click the link below for more notes on

Prepositions: Locators in Time and Place.

Actually this site is very useful. We referred to the notes from this site for our discussion on last tutorial.